Cryopreservation is the freezing of tissue for use in the future. Frozen sperm and embryos do not age. In infertility planning, cryopreservation can be used at different stages and for different reasons. Embryo freezing has been a well-established form of assisted conception since the birth of the first baby from this process in 1984. Freezing the embryo gives couples more options in planning their family and reduces the cost of subsequent assisted pregnancies. Freezing embryos for subsequent transfer may be advised for women who are about to undergo chemotherapy or radiation therapy for cancer or other diseases. Frozen Embryo Transfer effectively doubles the chances of conception, and is a far more cost effective option than a standard second cycle of In Vitro Fertilization.

Sperm cryopreservation (commonly called sperm banking) is a procedure to preserve sperm cells.Semen can be used successfully indefinitely after cryopreservation. For human sperm, the longest reported successful storage is 24 years.