In Vitro Fertilization
This process involves fertilization of an egg combined with a sperm outside the body, in vitro (“in glass”). This involves monitoring and stimulating ovaries of the woman, then removing the egg in the laboratory and fertilizing with sperm, the fertilized egg which is known as ‘zygote’ undergoes embryo culture for few days (2-6) and is then transferred to the same or another woman’s gestational surrogacy uterus, with the hope of establishing a successful pregnancy. IVF is usually attempted as a last resort if less invasive options are unsuccessful.
Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection is a procedure that has revolutionized the treatment of male infertility. During this procedure, a single sperm is injected directly into the partner's egg. As a result, men with a failed vasectomy reversal or with a congenital (from birth) absence of the vas deferens now have a high chance of fatherhood without using donor sperm. This procedure has decreased the need for donor sperm and almost eliminated the concept of untreatable male infertility. ICSI may be performed due to failed fertilization with IVF or male infertility such as low count, low motility and poor quality of sperm.
Egg donation is the process by which a woman donates eggs for purposes of assisted reproduction. Egg donors are screened for sexually transmitted diseases. It typically involves in vitro fertilization technology, with the eggs being fertilized in the laboratory. More rarely, unfertilized eggs may be frozen and stored for later use. Egg donation is a third party reproduction, as part of assisted reproductive technology (ART).